Ringed seal

Name:
Ringed seal
Scientific name:
Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida
Distribution:
Circumpolar distribution throughout the Arctic Basin, also in northern and eastern part of the Baltic Sea
Description:
Ring-shaped marks on their coats as adults
Weight and size: 
Up to 100 kg, 130 – 150 cm in length, no sexual dimorphism
Lifespan:  
45 years
Diving depth and duration:  
<80 meters / <6 min, max. 340 meters / >39 min
Diet: 
Crustaceans, fish (up to 72 species, mostly Cod)
Predator:
For juveniles: Polar bears, polar fox, glaucous gull, walrus, for adults: Orcas
Threatened by: 
Noise pollution, chemical pollution (associated with reproductive failure in Baltic Sea), marine debris (macro debris: entanglements, injuries, internal blockages; micro plastics: immunosuppression), fisheries interactions (bycatch, entanglements, collisions, fish stock depletion), disturbance (social behaviours, communication, feeding, breading), habitat degradation and loss, climate change (ice recedes: need ice and snow for the construction of caves), native subsistence hunting in Arctic regions
IUCN red list status:
Least concern
Special features:
Construct caves or lairs on top of the ice and under the snow with access to the water by using their strong claws, where they birth and nurse their young protected from cold and predators
Recent research projects:
Canada, 2013, Chambellant, researchers investigate stomach content of ringed seals to analyse diet
Baltic Sea and Svalbard, 2009, Routti, researchers investigate organic pollutants in ringed seals